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Face-lifts were performed as halen early as 1920, but it wasnt until the 1960s when cosmetic surgery was used to reduce the signs of aging. 31 During the twentieth century, cosmetic surgery mainly revolved around women. Men only participated in the practice if they had been disfigured by the war. Silicone implants were introduced in 1962. In the 1980s, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons made efforts to increase public awareness about plastic surgery. As a result, in 1982, the United States Supreme court granted physicians the legal right to advertise their procedures. 32 The optimistic and simplified nature of narrative advertisements often made the surgeries seem hazard-free, even though they were anything but. The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery reported that more than two million Americans elected to undergo cosmetic procedures, both surgical and non-surgical, in 1998, liposuction being the most popular. Breast augmentations ranked second, while numbers three, four, and five went to eye surgery, face-lifts, and chemical peels. 31 During the 1920s, numerous African Americans participated in skin bleaching in an attempt to lighten their complexion as well as hair straightening to appear whiter. Skin bleaches and hair straighteners created fortunes worth millions and accounted for a massive thirty to fifty percent of all advertisements in the black press of the decade. 33 Oftentimes, these bleaches and straighteners were created and marketed by African American women themselves. Skin bleaches contained caustic chemicals such as hydroquinone, which suppressed the production of melanin in the skin.
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29 The early commercial mascaras, like maybelline, were simply pressed cakes containing soap and pigments. A woman would dip a tiny brush into hot water, rub the bristles on the cake, remove the excess by rolling the brush onto some blotting paper or a sponge, and then apply the mascara as if her eyelashes were a watercolor canvas. 29 Eugene Schueller, founder of l'oréal, invented modern synthetic hair dye in 1907 and he also invented sunscreen in 1936. 30 The first patent for a nail polish was granted in 1919. Its color was a very faint pink. It's not clear how dark this rose was, but any girl whose nails were tipped in any pink darker than a baby's blush risked gossip about being "fast." 29 Previously, agricultural workers had only sported suntans, while fashionable women kept their skins as pale. In the wake of Chanel's adoption of the suntan, dozens of new fake tan products were produced to help both men and women achieve the "sun-kissed" look. In Asia, skin whitening continued to represent the ideal of beauty, as it does to this day. In the time voor period after the first World War, there was a boom in cosmetic surgery. During the 1920s and 1930s, facial configuration and social identity dominated a plastic surgeons world.
for stage and screen actors in Los Angeles in 1909. 26 even though his store was intended for actors, ordinary women came in to purchase theatrical eye shadow and eyebrow pencils for their home use. In the 1920s, the movie industry in Hollywood had the most influential impact on cosmetics. Stars such as Theda bara had a substantial effect on the makeup industry. Helena rubinstein was Baras makeup artist; she created mascara for the actress, relying on her experiments with kohl. 27 Others who saw the opportunity for the mass-market of cosmetics during this time were max Factor,., and Elizabeth Arden. Many of the present day makeup manufacturers were established during the 1920s and 1930s. Lipsticks were one of the most popular cosmetics of this time, more so than rouge and powder, because they were colorful and cheap. In 1915, maurice levy invented the metal container for lipstick, which gave license to its mass production. 28 The Flapper style also influenced the cosmetics of the 1920s, which embraced dark eyes, red lipstick, red nail polish, and the suntan, invented as a fashion statement by coco Chanel. The eyebrow pencil became vastly popular in the 1920s, in part because it was technologically superior to what it had been, due to a new ingredient: hydrogenated cottonseed oil (also the key constituent of another wonder product of that era Crisco oil).
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20 Vaseline became high in demand because it was used on chapped lips, as a stress base for hair tonic, and soap. 20 toilet waters were introduced in the early 1900s, but only lavender water or refined cologne was admissible for women to wear. 21 Cosmetic deodorant was invented in 1888, by an unknown inventor from Philadelphia and was trademarked under the name mum (deodorant). Roll-on deodorant was launched in 1952, and aerosol deodorant in 1965. Around 1910, make-up became fashionable in the United States of America and Europe owing to the influence of ballet and theatre stars such as Mathilde Kschessinska and Sarah Bernhardt. Colored makeup was introduced in Paris upon the arrival of the russian Ballet in 1910, where ochers and crimsons were the most typical shades. 22 The daily mirror beauty book showed that cosmetics were now acceptable for the literate classes to wear. With that said, men makkelijk often saw rouge as a mark of sex and sin, and rouging was considered an admission of ugliness. In 1915, a kansas legislature proposed to make it a misdemeanor for women under the age of forty-four to wear cosmetics "for the purpose of creating a false impression." 23 The daily mirror was one of the first to suggest using a pencil line (. Eyebrow darkener was also presented in this beauty book, created from gum Arabic, indian ink, and rosewater. 24 george burchett developed cosmetic tattooing during this time period. He was able to tattoo on pink blushes, red lips, and dark eyebrows.
Citation needed similar practices were followed by Aboriginals in Australia. Recent history edit The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and Europe and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. (may 2017) 20th century edit audience applying makeup at lecture by beautician in Los Angeles, circa 1950 During the early 1900s, makeup was not excessively popular. In fact, women hardly wore makeup at all. Make-up at this time was still mostly the territory of ladies of the night, those in cabarets and on the black white screen. 19 Face enamelling (applying actual paint to the face) became popular among the rich at this time in an attempt to look paler. This practice was dangerous due to the main ingredient often being arsenic. 20 Pale skin was associated with wealth because it meant that one was not out working in the sun and could afford to stay inside all day. Cosmetics were so unpopular that they could not be bought in department stores; they could only be bought at theatrical costume stores. A womans "makeup routine" often only consisted of using papier poudré, a powdered paper/oil blotting sheet, to whiten the nose in the winter and shine their cheeks in the summer. Rouge was considered provocative, so was only seen on "women of the night." Some women used burnt matchsticks to darken eyelashes, and geranium and poppy petals to stain the lips.
Cosmetics, cosmetics Suppliers and ManufacturersEurope edit In the middle Ages it was thought sinful and immoral to wear makeup by Church leaders, but many women still did. From the renaissance up until the 20th century the lower classes had to work outside, in agricultural jobs and the typically light-colored European's skin was darkened by exposure to the sun. The higher a person was in status, the more leisure avis time he or she had to spend indoors, which kept their skin pale. Thus, the highest class of European society were pale resulting in European men and mostly women attempting to lighten their skin directly, or using white powder on their skin to look more aristocratic. Citation needed a variety of products were used, including white lead paint which also may have contained arsenic, which also poisoned women and killed many. Citation needed queen Elizabeth i of England was one well-known user of white lead, with which she created a look known as "the mask of youth". 17 Portraits of the queen by nicholas Hilliard from later in her reign are illustrative of her influential style. Citation needed pale faces were a trend during the european Middle Ages. In the 16th century, women would bleed themselves to achieve pale skin. Spanish prostitutes wore pink makeup to contract pale skin. Citation needed 13th century Italian women wore red lipstick to show that they were upperclass. 18 The Americas and Australia edit some Indian American tribes painted their faces for ceremonial events or battle.
The lower classes were forbidden to wear bright colors on their nails. 10 Flowers play an important decorative role in China. Legend has it that once on the 7th day of the 1st lunar month, while Princess Shouyang daughter of Emperor wu of liu song was resting under the eaves of Hanzhang Palace near the plum trees after wandering in the gardens, a plum blossom drifted. The court ladies were said to be so impressed, that they started decorating their own foreheads with a small delicate plum blossom design. This is also the mythical origin of the floral fashion, meihua zhuang 12 literally "plum blossom makeup that originated in the southern Dynasties (420589) and became popular overbelaste amongst ladies in the tang (618907) and Song (9601279) dynasties. 14 15 Mongolia edit cookbook women of royal families painted red spots on the center of their cheeks, right under their eyes. However, it is a mystery why. Japan edit a maiko in the gion district of kyoto, japan, in full make-up. The style of the lipstick indicates that she is still new. In Japan, geisha wore lipstick made of crushed safflower petals to paint the eyebrows and edges of the eyes as well as the lips, and sticks of bintsuke wax, a softer version of the sumo wrestlers' hair wax, were used by geisha as a makeup. 16 Rice powder colors the face and back ; rouge contours the eye socket and defines the nose. 16 Ohaguro (black paint) colours the teeth for the ceremony, called Erikae, when maiko (apprentice geisha) graduate and become e geisha would also sometimes use bird droppings to compile a lighter color.
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Citation needed In Islamic law, despite these requirements, there is no absolute prohibition on wearing cosmetics; the cosmetics must not be made of substances that harm secret one's body. An early teacher in the 10th century was Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, or Abulcasis, who wrote the 24-volume medical encyclopedia al-Tasrif. A chapter of the 19th volume was dedicated to cosmetics. As the treatise was translated into latin, the cosmetic chapter was used in the west. Al-Zahrawi considered cosmetics a branch of medicine, which he called "Medicine of beauty" ( Adwiyat al-Zinah ). He deals with perfumes, scented aromatics and incense. There were perfumed sticks rolled and pressed in special molds, perhaps the earliest antecedents of present-day lipsticks and solid deodorants. He also used oily substances called Adhan for medication and beautification. Citation needed China edit a beijing opera performer with traditional stage make. Chinese people began to stain their fingernails with gum arabic, gelatin, beeswax and egg white from around 3000 bce. The colors used represented social class: Chou dynasty (first millennium BC) royals wore gold and silver; later royals wore black or red.
Kohl and lacewing flies have their roots in north Africa. Remedies to treat wrinkles containing ingredients such as gum of frankincense and fresh moringa. For scars and burns, a special ointment was made of red ochre, kohl, and sycamore juice. An alternative treatment real was a poultice of carob grounds and honey, or an ointment made of knotgrass and powdered root of wormwood. To improve breath the ancient Africans chewed herbs, frankincense, or licorice root stick, which is still in use today. Jars of what could be compared with setting lotion have been found to contain a mixture of beeswax and resin. These doubled as remedies for problems such as baldness and greying hair. They also used these products on their mummies, because they believed that it would make them irresistible in the after life. Middle east edit cosmetics were used in Persia and what today is Iran from ancient periods. Citation needed kohl is a black powder that is used widely across the persian Empire. It is used as a powder or smeared to darken the edges of the eyelids similar to eyeliner. 9 After Persian tribes converted to Islam and conquered those areas, in some areas cosmetics were only restricted if they were to disguise the real look in order to mislead or cause uncontrolled desire.
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The history of cosmetics spans at least 6000 years and is present in almost every society on Earth. Cosmetic body art is argued to have been the earliest form of a ritual in human culture. The evidence for this comes in the form of utilised red mineral pigments (red ochre) including crayons associated with the emergence. Homo sapiens in Africa. 1 2 3 4, archaeological evidence of cosmetics certainly dates from ancient. According to one source, 5 early major developments include the use of castor oil in ancient Egypt as a protective balm and skin creams made of beeswax, olive oil, and rosewater described by the romans. The, ancient Greeks also used collageen cosmetics. Cosmetics are mentioned in the, old Testament —2 Kings 9:30 where, jezebel painted alle her eyelids—approximately 840 bc—and the book. Esther describes various beauty treatments as well. Cosmetics were also used in ancient Rome, although much of Roman literature suggests that it was frowned upon. It is known that some women in ancient Rome invented make up including lead-based formulas, to whiten the skin, and kohl was used to line the eyes. 8, contents, across the globe edit, egypt edit, the use of cosmetics in Ancient Egypt is well documented.